Khmer Rouge

Justice and Reconciliation After the Khmer Rouge: What Has Been Achieved?

On the 40th anniversary of the fall of Phnom Penh, the Heinrich Böll Foundation organised a conference with the purpose of assessing the achievements and the shortcomings of Cambodia’s transitional justice process. “Justice and Reconciliation after the Khmer Rouge Regime: What has been achieved?” took place in Meta House, Phnom Penh, on 18 February 2015, and brought together researchers and experts from a number of different disciplines.

Justice done? The Legacy of the Khmer Rouge Tribunal after the judgment of case 002/01, 12th Aug 2014, Phnom Penh

On the 7th August, 2014, the Trial Chamber of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) sentenced Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan to life imprisonment, having found them guilty of crimes against humanity committed between the 17th April, 1975, and December, 1977. This verdict marks the completion of the first trial in Case 02, known as Case 002/01, which commenced on the 21st November, 2011, and concluded in October, 2013, after 20 months of evidentiary hearings.


Plastic Atlas

Plastic Atlas

Plastic is ubiquitous: we use it for life-saving medical devices, clothing, toys and cosmetics; we use it in agriculture and industry. But we also know the growing risk of plastic waste in the environment, landfills and the oceans.

Little Scientists

Our Planet, Our Future, Our Responsibility


Improving livelihood and natural resource sustainability by a combination of two systems

Property rights regimes in regard to forests and forestland are different from country to the other. In Europe for example are three different forest property right regimes at stake: the publicly owned forest (stakeholders are communes, universities, cities); the state owned forest (stakeholders are the state or the church); the private owned forest (stakeholders are private persons or corporate bodies).

Lower Sesan 2 Dam Survey on The Compensation Policies and Market Property

Phnom Penh, December 09, 2015: The Survey on The compensation Policies and Market Property Price of Lower Sesan 2 Dam Development Project (LS2), commissioned by The NGO Forum on Cambodia and Heinrich Boell Foundation/Heinrich Böll Stiftung (HBS), the High Commissioner for Human Rights in Cambodia (OHCHR), Oxfam conducted by Independent consultant team, is launched today at Phnom Penh Ecumenical Diakonia Centre (PPEDC) to the public.

Soil Atlas: Facts and figures about earth, land and fields

Through misuse, we lose 24 billion tonnes of fertile soil every year. For the International Year of Soils in 2015, this Atlas shows, why the soil should concern us all. Jointly published by the Heinrich Böll Foundation and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies.

The Phnom Penh Rental Housing Survey

Executive Summary

In the current development and economic climate of Cambodia, urbanization plays a major role. The promise of employment, savings, and a secure future has driven rates of urbanization to be amongst the highest in the South-East Asia region. 

Bittersweet Harvest


In recent years, there has been a surge in forced displacement resulting from land concessions for industrial sugar plantations in Cambodia. Motivated by the European Union’s “Everything But Arms” (EBA) preferential trade scheme for least developed countries, Thai sugar companies and a well connected Cambodian tycoon have developed industrial plantations in Cambodia to produce raw sugar for export to Europe. The EBA initiative provides duty-free access to the European market and a guaranteed minimum price for sugar that has been on average three times the world price. While the EBA scheme is intended to benefit the poor through job creation from export-led growth, the case of Cambodia’s rapidly expanding sugar industry tells a different story. 


Living on the margins: On the Status and Standing of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in Cambodia

Cambodian minorities and Indigenous Peoples differ in terms of their migration history, their means of living, the way they practice and preserve their cultural traditions, and their sense of identity. This report attempts to provide an overview of 4 different minority groups in general; and in particular, it will examine and compare the situation of the Cham Muslims, the Khmer Krom, the ethnic Vietnamese, along with the Indigenous Peoples of Cambodia.

Rights at a Price: Life Inside Cambodia’s Prisons

Ahead of the appeal hearing this week for 10 land activists and one monk, all wrongfully convicted and imprisoned following unfair trials, LICADHO is publishing a new report about the current state of Cambodian prisons and the human rights implications for those held in them.

Corruption, Violence and Gender

A country still transitioning to democracy, Cambodia needs a reliable police force to uphold the rule of law and instill confidence in the governance system among the country’s people. To this end, significant donor and government resources have been spent for initiatives creating new institutional rules and providing police training to boost capacity. In reality however, the police force is still perceived as one of the country’s most corrupt institutions. Moreover, acts of police brutality against civilians continue to occur, demonstrated during recent land eviction protests and demonstrations following the release of the highly contested results of the 28 July 2013 national election. Consequently, this paper seeks to discredit the fictitious view that new institutional rules and police training will necessarily lead to an adequate police force.

Quotas Matter for Full Equal Political and Economic Participation

Equality for all human beings is a core principal and Leitmotif of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1949 and manifested in many national constitutions. Due to the lack of equal political participation of women quotas were implemented over the last years – by developed and developing countries in order to improve women’s political participation. Empirical evidence shows that it is a powerful and successful tool.


Gender and Digitisation in Asia: Future Policy Pathways

Gender and Digitisation in Asia: Future Policy Pathways


E-paper To ensure that the fourth industrial revolution realises its transformative potential instead of exacerbating and creating new gender inequalities, it is important to understand the many intersections of digitisation and gender from a policy perspective. This paper examines the gendered dimensions of ICT in Asian countries, particularly South Asia and Southeast Asia/ASEAN.

Annual Report 2013

The annual report 2013 of the Heinrich Böll Foundation summarizes the Foundation's work on the topics European policy, ecology and justice, democracy and human rights, foreign and security policy, education, social participation and opportunities for advancement.

Transitional Justice

This study analyzes whether and how gender is taken into consideration during the transitional period following wars, violent conflicts and dictatorships. The key question posed here is: To what extent can transitional justice institutions and mechanisms achieve gender justice? This stems from the assumption that forms of genderbased violence as well as gender differences need to be considered when coming to terms with wars, mass violence and severe breaches of human rights. Only by doing so can violent structures be eliminated, sustainable peace processes created and social justice established.

Increasing women’s political representation and participation in Cambodia through the implementation of gender quotas

The overarching objective of this paper is to provide recommendations for the implementation of gender quotas in Cambodia. The paper first considers why it is important to achieve gender equality in politics, and asks eight individuals, who are working in Cambodia to promote the role of women in politics, why they think it is necessary for women to be represented in politics.

Women's Leadership: A Case Study From Cambodia

In a rural commune situated along the Mekong river in Kratie province, a group of women with a strong motivation to work for other women`s emancipation come together and decided to engage in activities that could inspire women and offer them new roles and opportunities.

Perspectives Asia

Perspectives Asia #8: Asia for Future

Perspectives Asia #8: Asia for Future

This edition of Perspectives Asia presents the work of climate change activists in Asia who are calling their governments and people to action. They are raising their voices, some of them despite severe restrictions on the right of free assembly and freedom of speech. These activists show immense courage and they deserve international recognition for their work.

Perspectives Asia #7: Nationalisms and Populisms in Asia

Nationalistic sentiments spurred by populist rhetoric have been on the rise globally. Asia is no exception to this trend. Some Asian leaders communicate visions that can instill a feeling of pride, creating a rarely felt sense of belonging among people. Yet the current streak of Asian nationalism can also become a setbackfor democracy and human rights.  

Perspectives Asia: DigitalAsia

Over the last years, Asia has undergone an impressive digital transformation. Large parts of the continent have turned from the world’s factory into a creative industry. Asian countries not only manufacture, but also develop new digital products. The region already accounts for half of world’s 2.8 billion internet users and by 2025 fast changing technologies are expected to bring a massive economic change.

Perspectives Asia: Politics of Food

What we eat is determined by more than just our preferences. Food choices are shaped by availability, culture and global economic structures. Tradition and wealth can influence what we eat, just as trade and foreign investments can influence our access to food. Due to the high degree of economic interdependence, the purchase of a food product in one country can affect the price development in another, ultimately restricting food choices. In short: Food is a highly political issue. Nowhere is this more true than in Asia.

Perspectives Asia: The Gender Issue

In this edition of Perspectives Asia, the authors highlight certain aspects of gender relations and offer some very personal insights into the situations of women and men in Asia.

Perspectives Asia: A Continent on the Move

Asia, the world’s most populous continent, has been undergoing a dramatic transformation. Globalization and new technologies are leading millions of people out of poverty. At the same time thousands have to leave their country. A continent on the move.

Perspectives Asia: More or Less? Growth and Development Debates in Asia

This second issue of "Perspectives Asia" provides a forum for the voices of authors from various Asian countries to express their thoughts on possible development models for the region. How can we achieve prosperity for all, without doing long-term damage to nature or threatening the subsistence of entire populations?

Perspectives Asia: Copper, Coal and Conflict

In this issue, our authors report on conflicts stemming from coal and copper mining in Afghanistan, India, and Myanmar. The articles on Cambodia and on Inner Mongolia in China illustrate how the traditional economic models and ways of life of indigenous populations suffer from the unrestrained exploitation of raw materials.